OXIDATION-REDUCTION-OXIDES-TYPES OF OXIDES
 
 
 
OXIDATION
 
The process of oxidation may be defined by the following ways:
A chemical reaction in which oxygen combines with other elements to produce oxides is called oxidation.
FOR EXAMPLE:
2NO + O2 2NO2
C + O2 CO2
2SO2 + O2 2SO3
  OR
Removal of hydrogen from its compounds is also called Oxidation.
MnO2 + 4HCl MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2
OR
Loss of electron from an element is called oxidation.
Na Na+ + e-
REDUCTION
Reduction may be defined as:
Removal of oxygen from a substance is called reduction .
CuO + H2 Cu+H2O
OR
Addition of hydrogen in a substance is called Reduction.
OR
Gain of electron is called Reduction.
Na+ + e- Na
OXIDES-TYPES OF OXIDES
OXIDES
 
The binary compounds of oxygen are known as "OXIDES".
OR
Binary compounds of different elements in which one element is oxygen are known as "oxides".
TYPES OF OXIDES
 
Depending upon the oxidation state of oxygen in a binary compound, oxides are divided into the following classes:
NORMAL OXIDES
 
Those oxides in which oxidation state of oxygen is (-2) are known as normal oxides.
FOR EXAMPLE:
MgO, SO2, CO2 ,
PEROXIDES
 
Those oxides in which oxidation state of oxygen is (-1) are known as peroxides.
FOR EXAMPLE:
H2O2, Na2O2, BaO2
SUPEROXIDES
 
Those oxides in which oxidation state of oxygen is (-1/2) are known as superoxides.
FOR EXAMPLE:
KO2, RbO2
SUBOXIDES
 
those oxides which have less quantity of oxygen than the normal oxides are known as suboxides. They are unstable and very limited in quantity.
FOR EXAMPLE:
C3O2 (Carbon suboxides)
TYPES OF NORMAL OXIDES
 
There are three types of normal oxides:
BASIC OXIDES
ACIDIC OXIDES
NEUTRAL OXIDES
AMPHOTERIC OXIDES
BASIC OXIDES
 
Normal oxides formed between metals and oxygen are known as Basic Oxides. These oxides have basic character .
4Na + O2 2Na2O
ACIDIC OXIDES
 
Normal oxides form between nonmetals and oxygen are known as acidic oxides .These oxides have acidic character .
S+O2 SO2
C+O2 CO2
NEUTRAL OXIDES
 
Neutral oxides are those oxides which in contact with water produce neither an acid nor a base. I mean to say that the aqueous solution of these oxides have a neutral character.
FOR EXAMPLE:
H2O, NO, N2O
AMPHOTERIC OXIDES
 
These are the oxides of certain metals such aluminuim, zinc and tin which posses dual properties of an acid and a base.
2Zn + O2 2ZnO
4Al+3O2 2Al2O3
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