ALLOTROPIC FORMS OF CARBON
ALLOTROPIC FORMS OF CARBON
   Carbon exists in two allotropic forms:
   (1) CRYSTALLINE FORM
   (2) AMORPHOUS FORM
CRYSTALLINE FORMS
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   There are three crystalline forms of carbon:
   (1) Diamond
   (2) Graphite
   (3) Bucky ball
AMORPHOUS FORMS
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   There are various amorphous forms of carbon such as
   coal
   coke
   charcoal
   lampblack
   gas carbon etc.
DIAMOND
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   In diamond, each C-atom is covalently bonded to four other C-atom to give a tetrahedral unit. In    diamond each C-atom is sp3-hybridized.Therefore each C-atom forms four sigma bonds with
   neighbouring C-atoms.
   In diamond C-C-C bond angle is 109.5O.These basic tetrahedral units unite with one another and produce    a cubic unit cell.
   C-C bond length in diamond is 1.54AO.
   C-C bond energy is 347 kj/mole.
   In diamond crystal, basic units joined to forms octahedral shape of diamond crystal.
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PROPERTIES OF DIAMOND
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   In diamond each C-atom utilizes its four unpaired electrons in bond formation. These bonding electrons    are localized. Due to this reason diamond is a bad conductor of electricity.
   Diamond is the hardest   substance ever known.
   Pure diamond is cloudless.
   Its melting point is 3500OC.
   Pure diamond  is transparent to x-rays.
   It has high refractive index i.e. 2.45.
   Due to impurities it may be colored.
   Its density is 3.5 gm/cm3.
GRAPHITE
   In graphite each C-atom is covalently bonded to three C-atom to give trigonal geometry. Bond angle in    graphite is 120O. Each C-atom in graphite is sp2-hybridized. Three out of four valance electrons of each    C-atom are used in bond formation while the forth electrons free to move in the structure of graphite.    Basic trigonal units unite together to give basic hexagonal ring. In hexagonal ring C-C bond length is    1.42AO. In graphite these rings forms flat layers. These layers are arranged is parallel ,one above the    other. These layers 3.35AO apart and are held together by weak van der waals forces only.These layers    can slide over one another.Thus it is very soft. Forth electron of each c-atom forms delocalized
   p-system.
PROPERIES OF GRAPHITE
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   It is dark gray, have dull metallic luster.
   It is soft and greasy.
   It is used as lubricant.
   Its density is 2.2 gm/cm3.
   It is used in the preparation of electrodes as it canduct electricity.
   It is used as "pencil lead".
   It is used as moderator in nuclear reactors.
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