ION
 
If an electron or more than one electrons are added to or removed from an atom then it becomes a negative or a positive charged particles which is known as "ION".
CATION
 
If an electron or more than one electrons are removed from an atom,
it becomes a positive ion which is also known as "cation".
for example: Na+1, K+1, Ca+2, Mg+2, Al+3.
ANION
 
If an electron or more than one electrons are added to an atom
it becomes a negative ion which is also known as "anion".
for example: Cl-1, Br-1, O-2, N-3, F-1
IONIZATION POTENTIAL
 
"Amount of energy required to remove an electron from
an isolated gaseous atom is called ionization potential."
ATOM + ENERGY è CATION + ELECTRON
A + Energy è A+ + e-
UNIT:
  • kJ / mole
  • For latest information , free computer courses and high impact notes visit : www.citycollegiate.com
    FACTORS AFFECTING IONIZATION POTENTIAL:
    (i) ATOMIC SIZE (ii) NUCLEAR CHARGE (iii) SHIELDING EFFECT OF INNER ELECTRONS
    1. Big atoms have small I.P. values
    2. Small atoms have high values of I.P.
    3. Greater the nuclear charge , higher is the I.P. of atom.
    I.P. IN A GROUP
    I.P. decreases in a group from top to bottom due to increase in atomic size from top to bottom in a group.
    I.P. IN A PERIOD
    I.P. increases in a period from left to right.
    This increase in I.P. is due to increase in nuclear charge.
    For latest information , free computer courses and high impact notes visit : www.citycollegiate.com
    |NEXT PAGE|PHOTOSHOP|FLASH|SWISH|FLAX|INTERNET|PHYSICS|CHEMISTRY|HOME|