ACID, BASE AND SALT
 
 
 
ACID
 
GENERAL DEFINITION
An acid is a substance which provides hydrogen (H+ ) ions in aqueous solution.
Example: HCl , HNO3 , H2SO4 etc.
DIFFERENT CONCEPTS
OF ACID
 
ARRHENIUS CONCEPT OF ACID
 
According to Arrhenius, an acid is a substance, which provides H+ ions in aqueous solution.
Example:
HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-
H2SO4 + H2O H3O+ + HSO4-
LOWRY AND BRONSTED CONCEPT
 
According to Lowry & Bronsted concept, an acid is a compound or species which donates or tends to donate a proton .
CH3COOH + H2O H3O+ + CH3COO-
In this example acetic acid donates a proton to water.
LEWIS CONCEPT OF ACID
 
According to Lewis concept, "an acid is a compound or species that accepts a pair of electrons."
FeCl3, FeBr3, AlCl3 etc. (Lewis acid)
Br- + FeBr3 FeBr4-
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BASE
 
GENERAL DEFINITION
A base is a substance which provides OH- ions in aqueous solution.
Example: NaOH, KOH, NH4OH etc.
DIFFERENT CONCEPTS
OF BASE
 
ARRHENIUS CONCEPT OF BASE
 
According to Arrhenius a base is a substance which provides OH- ions in aqueous solution
NaOH Na+ + OH-
KOH K+ + OH-
LOWRY AND BRONSTED CONCEPT OF BASE
 
According to Lowry& Bronsted concept a base is a substance or species, which accepts, tends to accept proton in aqueous solution.
LEWIS CONCEPT OF BASE
 
According to this concept "A base is compound or species that donate an pair of electron."
NH3, OH-, F- etc.
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